It's an era where stars don't shine above you, because the glow of the stars is outshined by the illumination of cities.
Globe at Night defines light pollution as the excessive, misdirected, or obtrusive usage of artificial light and links it to the disappearance of dark skies. This, in turn, affects astronomical observations, caused by excessive sky glow which results from shielded lighting, improper adjustment and unnecessary light fixtures. Light pollution comes in many forms, including sky glow, light trespass, glare, and over-illumination. Studies have shown that this is indeed a growing concern in Malaysia. Nonetheless, is the enactment of the Light Pollution Act as purported by the Consumers Association of Penang (CAP) and initiated by the National Space Agency (ANGKASA) the only solution to curtail this issue? This article examines the legal solutions to curb light pollution in Malaysia with a comparison from other jurisdictions such as Australia, the United Kingdom, and South Korea, as well as to identify the implications of enacting and enforcing such laws on various stakeholders.
Clothes are seen as necessities, and with affordable trendy outfits available at every corner in your typical shopping mall, it is almost unimaginable to think about giving any of them up. However, the reality is such that the issue of pollution wrought upon by the fast fashion industry has been prevalent for long.
I. FAST FASHION: WHAT IT’S ALL ABOUT
The term ‘fast fashion’ would instinctively bring up brands like UNIQLO, H&M and Zara in our brains. You are not wrong. Fast fashion suggests that clothing collections and products, in general, change quickly. Instead of the standard four season collections, fast fashion companies have approximately 52 seasons in one year. These companies base their business models on low-cost clothing collections which emulate high-cost luxury fashion trends. They also place emphasis on rapid prototyping, efficient transportation and delivery, and ‘floor ready’ merchandise. With all these elements taken into view, it is no surprise that the main attraction of fast fashion companies is the availability and affordability of their garments. Of course, to sustain this appeal, many fast fashion companies resort to outsourcing production to countries with low labour and production costs, such as Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, China and more. Companies like Zara have resorted to outsourcing at least 13 percent of their manufacturing to China and Turkey in order to suppress overhead costs.